Aligning assessment tasks with Bloom's taxonomy verbs

Listen to this article
Cognitive level / Bloom's taxonomy
Cognitive action verbs for course learning outcomes
Discussion questions
Best practice
Assessment tasks
Retrieve, recall, or recognize knowledge from long-term memory
Define, Describe, Identify, Label, List, Locate, Match, Name, Recall, Select, State
What do we already know about...? What did you notice about...? What are the principles of ...? How does...tie in with what we learned before?
Allow multiple attempts (reiteration) Interleaving (switching between topics to reinforce recall)
Regular practice quizzes (multiple choice, multiple answer, fill in blank, matching questions, true/false), In-video quizzes, Journals
Demonstrate comprehension through one or more forms of explanation
Articulate, Classify, Contrast, Clarify, Demonstrate, Describe, Discuss, Explain, Infer, Extend, Interpret, Paraphrase, Summarize
Summarize.or Explain... What will happen if...? What does...mean? How might you demonstrate...?
Explicitly share the organization of activities / Structure opportunities to connect new learning to prior knowledge and/or lived experience
Weekly & daily practice quizzes (multiple choice, fill in blank, short answer questions), Concept maps, Discussion boards, Group collaboration annotation of articles, In-video quizzes
Use information or skill in a new situation
Apply, Calculate, Change, Choose, Construct, Discover, Experiment, Illustrate, Modify, Predict, Solve, Use
What would happen if...? What is a new example of ...? How used to...? What is the counterargument for...? What would you have done in this situation? What do you think they should do? How does out in this context?
Use rubrics to offer incremental feedback on projects
Reflection discussion boards (how do concepts relate to the real world, field, etc.), Problem sets, Blog posts, Journals, Papers, Case studies
Break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts relate to one another
Analyze, Appraise, Categorize, Compare, Contrast, Debate, Diagram, Differentiate, Examine, Experiment, Organize
Why is ... important? What might...have in common? How are they different? What are the implications of...? Explain why / explain how?
Scaffold complex tasks / Make evaluative criteria explicit
Case studies, Papers, Debates, Group (collaborative) annotation of articles/ textbooks
Make judgments based on criteria and standards
Appraise, Assess, Compare, Contrast, Critique, Defend, Determine, Discriminate, Estimate, Explain, Interpret, Measure, Predict, Summarize, Support
How does ...affect ...? Why is...happening? What is the best...and why? Do you agree or disagree with the statement...? What evidence is there to support your answer? What are the strengths and weaknesses of...? What is the nature of...?
Design rubric for peer feedback and evaluation and self-evaluation
Peer review activities, Group member evaluation, Self-evaluation, Journals, critiques, product or service reviews, studies
Put elements together to form a new coherent or functional whole; reorganize elements into a new pattern or structure
Animate, Arrange, Create, Construct, Design, Develop, Devise, Formulate, Generate, Modify, Outline, Produce, Reconstruct
What is the solution to the problem of...? What do you think causes ...? What is another way to look at...?
Offer several, varied exemplars to model and inspire / Make explicit criteria for the provision of reflection on/rationale for creative choices
Portfolios, Project (research, performance, website design), Papers, Case studies, Peer-reviewed video presentations