Principles of in-text citations


Your written projects or oral presentations must be built on reliable, validated evidence from expert sources.

Every paraphrase or direct quotation from your sources must be identified in your text by an in-text citation.

What is an APA style in-text citation?

An in-text citation identifies the source of a paraphrase or direct quotation with the family name of the author and the date of publication enclosed in parentheses (  ).

Examples of in-text citations

Innovations are identified as an important catalyst for economic survival and growth in the hospitality literature (e.g., Binder et al., 2013Orfila-Sintes & Mattsson, 2009; […]). Their positive impact is well recognized. For instance, innovative hotels are reported to perform better in terms of occupancy rate (Mattsson & Orfila‐Sintes, 2014) and customer loyalty (Tsai, 2017). Chadee and Mattsson (1996) show that innovative new products and services improve the financial performance and reputation of a hotel. Storey and Easingwood (1998) also identify a positive link between innovation behavior and hotel reputation.

Adapted from: Wikham, W. (2019).  Innovation, sustainable HRM and customer satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 76(part A), 102-110.


Binder, P., Mair, M., Stumer, K., & Kessler, A.. (2016). Organizational innovativeness and its results: A qualitative analysis of SME hotels in Vienna. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 40(3), 339-363.

Chadee, D. D., & Mattsson, J. (1996). An empirical assessment of customer satisfaction in tourism. Service Industries Journal, 16(3), 305-320.

Mattsson, J., & Orfila-Sintes, F. (2014). Hotel innovation and its effect on business performance. International Journal of Tourism Research, 16(4), 388-398.

Orfila-Sintres, F., & Mattsson, J. (2009). Innovation behavior in the hotel industry. Omega, 37(2), 380-394.

Storey, C., & Easingwood, C. J. (1998). The augmented service offering: a conceptualization and study of its impact on new service success. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 15(4), 353-351.

Tsai, S. P. (2017). Driving holistic innovation to heighten hotel customer loyalty. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(15), 1604-1619.

Notes on in-text citations
  1. Each paraphrase is credited to a source with an in-text citation.
  2. The basic form of the in-text citation is author family name, date in parentheses (Orfila-Sintes & Mattsson, 2009) or as part of the sentence: Chadee and Mattsson (1996) show that ….
  3. When you enclose the in-text citation in parentheses, replace the word “and” with the ampersand “&” (Orfila-Sintes & Mattsson, 2009).
  4. When your in-text citation is part of a sentence use the word “and”, not the ampersand “&”: Chadee and Mattsson (1996) show that ….
  5. When there are three or more authors, use the family name of the first author followed by the phrase “et al.”: (Binder et al., 2013).
  6. Each in-text citation corresponds to an end of text reference list entry.
For more information about this topic, see

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), pp. 261-262, section 8.10 Author-date citation system.

American Psychological Association. (n.d). Author-date citation system.