A table: How do I format a table? How do I credit my source?
What is a table?
A table usually shows numerical values (for example hospitality company financial reports) and/or textual information (e.g., stock lists for kitchens) arranged in columns and rows.
The goal of a table is to help readers understand your work. It should be attractive and accessible. The APA Style guidelines for figures help ensure your visual displays are formatted clearly and consistently, thus contributing to the goal of effective communication.
Article selection process
Adapted from “A bibliometric analysis of social media in hospitality and tourism research,” by K. Nusair, I. Butt, and S.R. Nikhashemi, 2019, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(7), p. 2697 (https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-06-2018-0489).
Author – WHO? Use the family name followed by the initial letter of the first name. Use the ampersand “&” before the family name of the last author in the list. Check you have included the commas “,” and periods “.” in the correct place.
Date – WHEN? Write the year of publication of the article enclosed in parentheses ( ). Check you have included the period “.” in the correct place.
Title – WHAT? Write the title of the article. Use sentence style capitalization, meaning the initial letter of the first word should be capitalized, following words should be lower case. If there is a period *.” or colon “:” in the title of the article, the initial letter of the following word should be capitalized. The names of people, countries and so on should have an initial capital letter. End the title with a period “.”.
Source – WHERE? Write the name of the journal in italics. Each main word in the journal title should be capitalized. The volume number of the journal should be in italics. The issue number is in normal font (not italicized) and enclosed in parentheses ( ). Write the page numbers of the beginning and end of the article, separated by a hyphen “-“. End with a period “.”. If the article has a DOI (digital object identifier), you should include it as a hyperlink (i.e. beginning with http:// or https://.
Corresponding in-text citation styles
Parenthetical citation: The hospitality industry will expand by 3% (Nusair et al., 2019).
Narrative citation: Nusair et al., (2019) predict that the hospitality industry will expand by 3%.
For more information, see
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), pp. 261-263, 283-284.
American Psychological Association. (n.d). Reference examples – journal. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples#journal