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What is a doi?

A digital object identifier (doi) is an individual, specific link to an academic article or another online object.

Why is the doi important?

Many links become broken after some time if they are not maintained. The doi link is designed to be robust and long-lasting. It should not become broken and should continue to enable one-click access to the target document.

What does a doi link look like?

The doi format is

Real-world examples of doi links to academic articles about hospitality include

Should I include the doi link in my end of text reference list?

Yes, you should. The doi link should be included at the end of the reference list entry:

Kim, Y. J., Park, J. S., & Jeon, H. M. (2021). Experiential value, satisfaction, brand love, and brand loyalty toward robot barista coffee shop: The moderating effect of generation. Sustainability, 13(21), 120-129.

Do all academic articles have doi numbers?

No. Most recent academic articles have doi links to facilitate access, but some older articles do not have a doi link.

What if the article I want to reference has no doi link?

If you cannot find the doi link, you can enter the title of your article in the search bar of this site, to see if there is doi link. Or you can use their homepage with the search bar and select “Search metadata” :

If you still cannot find a doi link, then you create your reference list entry without a doi link.